Jefferson sits atop two large ridges, Castellated and Ridge of the Caps, and on the edge of the Great Gulf. It sits just north of Mt Clay, which is north of Mt Washington, and between Sphinx Col and Edmands Col. Except for one trail, it's probably the hardest to reach of the northern Presidentials, owing to the long and difficult approaches.
The easiest access to Jefferson is from the height of land on the Jefferson Notch road via the Caps Ridge trail. That is the only route to a summit in the northern Presidentials that involves less than 3000' of elevation gain, but there are some sections of steep scrambling. Other routes include the Randolph Path from Appalachia or Randolph East, a long but fairly gradual approach. The Castle Trail up Castellated Ridge is a popular approach going over the many fun Castles. The Six Husbands Trail is the most direct route coming up from the Great Gulf.
The Appalachian Trail runs past Jefferson as the Gulfside Trail, with only the Jefferson Loop trail going over the actual summit. South along the AT are Mt's Clay and Washington with Adams to the north. Just to the north of the peak is Edmands Col, and just below that on the Randolph Path is the RMC's Perch Shelter.
There are three small summit bumps all within a few feet of each other in location and height. South and west of the summit is Monticello Lawn, a broad, flat expanse of alpine terrain.